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AP美国历史提升技巧之第二部分

2019/3/22 13:44:02 来源:苏州三立教育 作者:本站编辑

一、材料分析题简介

 

在答完AP美国历史的第一部分——选择题和简答题以后,考生会有10分钟的休息时间。休息之后等待考生的是AP美国历史考试的第二部分即考试时间为90分钟的问答题部分。这部分的第一个题型就是材料分析题。

 

考生会有15分钟来阅读材料一般是8~12篇历史文献这些历史文献经常由新闻、演讲稿、信件、报道、法案、条例、条约、总统令、社论、漫画、图表等组成。然后要求考生40分钟内按照题目要求综合所有材料写出一篇论点明确的论文。这部分的话题极有可能是考生所不熟悉的话题,但大家也不用紧张因为需要作答的所有知识都已经呈现在几篇给出的史料之中。

 

典型的材料分析题会以如下的介绍开始:

 

Directions: Question 1 is based on the accompanying documents. The documents have been edited for purpose of this exercise. You are advised to spend 15 minutes planning and 40 minutes writing your answer.

 

Write your responses on the lined pages that follow the questions. In your response you should do the following.

 

 State a relevant thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question.

 Support the thesis or a relevant argument with evidence from all, or all but one, of the documents.

 Supports the thesis or a relevant argument by accounting for historical complexity, relating diverse historical evidence in a cohesive way.

 Focus your analysis of each document on at least one of the following: Author's point of view, author's purpose, audience, and/or historical context.

 Support your argument with analysis of historical examples outside the documents.

 Connect historical phenomena relevant to your argument to broader events or processes.

 Synthesize the elements above into a persuasive essay.

 

注:考生在考试中尤其要注意几个要点比如一定要有论点要回答所有给定的问题用到所有的资料,要结合当时的历史环境要表述出作者的目的要用到给定材料之外的补充资料,要以完整的论文形式表达等因为这些其实就是阅卷老师进行打分的依据。

 

然后会提供给考生8~12篇历史资料最后会给定一个问题如:

 

Question 1. Using information from the evidence (that follows) as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution?

 

考生接下来就需要综合所有给定的资料,写出论文回答以上的问题。

 

材料分析题评分规则

材料分析题会以0~7的采分点来打分如下所示

 

A. Thesis (0~1 point possible)

Argumentation

1 point:

Presents a thesis that makes a historically defensible claim and responds to all parts of the question. The thesis must consist of one or more sentences located in one place, either in the introduction or the conclusion.

Scoring Note: Neither the introduction nor the conclusion is necessarily limited to a single paragraph.

 

B. Document analysis (0-3 points possible)

Analyzing evidence

1 point:

Utilizes the content of the majority of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument.

2 point:

Utilizes the content of the majority of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument.

AND

Explains the significance of the author's point of view, historical context, and/or audience for at least four documents.

3 point:

Utilizes the content of the all or all but one of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument.

AND

Explains the significance of the author's point of view, author's purpose, historical context, and/or audience for all or all but one document.

 

C.  Using Evidence Beyond the Documents (0-1 point possible)

Contextualization and Argumentation

1 point:

Situates the argument by explaining the broader historical events, development, or processes immediately relevant to the question.

Scoring Note: Contextualization requires using knowledge not found in the documents to situate the argument within broader historical events, developments, or processes immediately relevant to the question. The contextualization point is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference, but instead requires an explanation, typically consisting of multiple sentences or a full paragraph.

 

D. Evidence beyond the document (0~1points)

Evidence beyond the document

1 point:

Provides an example or additional piece of specific evidence beyond those found in the documents to support or qualify the argument.

Scoring Notes:

• This example must be different from the evidence used to earn other points on this rubric.

• This point is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference. Responses need to reference an additional piece of specific evidence and explain how that evidence supports or qualifies the argument.

 

E. Synthesis (0~1 point possible)

Synthesis

1 point:

Extends the argument by explaining the connection between the argument and ONE of the following:

• A development in a different historical period, situation, era or geographical area.

• A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, cultural, or intellectual history)

• A different discipline or field of inquiry (such as economics, government and politics, art history, or anthropology) (Note: For European and World History only).

Scoring Note: The synthesis point requires an explanation of the connections to different historical period, situation, era, or geographical area, and is not awarded for merely a phrase or reference.

 

材料分析题提升技巧

(一) 分析题目

材料分析题要求考生根据自己掌握的知识来分析材料,回答问题。对于答案,其实并没有一个固定的错对之分。只要你能够提出论点,并且用材料支持自己的论点就会给你分数。就好像你是一个历史学家,第一次听到肯尼迪总统的一段录音带或者发现了一封马丁··金的长信,或者和林登·约翰逊进行了一次面谈或者开始用数据分析1900年美国贫困地区的分布,考生要根据这些原始资料得出自己的结论。

 

考生在拿到材料分析题目以后,千万牢记先不要去读材料最先要做的是读懂题目。分析题目的第一步则是需要把题目中给定的关键词画出,重点是要出事件及时间以便进一步的分析。如例题给定如下:

 

· Using information from the evidence (that follows)as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution?

 

可以把以下关键词画出:

 

· Using information from the evidence (that follows) as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution?

 

画出关键,题目的梗概便呈现在面前。即安德鲁·杰克逊总统在社会、经济和政治方面改革的程度。然后把题目归类,看看题目属于哪种类型。在材料分析题中最常见的三种题型为“程度题(to what extent”、“比较题compare/contrast变化延续题continuity and change在此基础上去判断出你需要根据问题大致得出什么样的结论,借此形成你答题的大致思路。

 

接下来,考生需要按照给定时间顺序构建一个与事件相关的数据只要是与问题沾边的事件都可以构建在这个数据库中。如果完全没有想法,则可以按照以下思路来构建经济上如何,政治上如何外交上如何事件上如何法案上如何等。

 

(二)阅读分析材料

在对题目进行分析之后,考生可以开始阅读材料并且一定要以材料为依据来支持自己的论点。通常来说,建议考生用SOAPS方法来分析文章SubjectOccasionAudiencePurposeSpeaker也就是说讨论的什么话题What is being discussed)?这些话的背景环境是什么(What is the context of events)?材料的受众是谁To whom is the message directed)?表达这些思想最终想达到什么目的What is the recommended action to the reader)?材料的来源是什么或者作者是谁What/who is the source)?

 

以刚才那道题为例:

 

Document C

Source: Jackson Announces His Policy of Rotation in Office (1829)

In a country where offices are created solely for the benefit of the people no one man has any more intrinsic right to official station than another. Offices were not established to give support to particular men at the public expense. No individual wrong is, therefore, done by removal, since neither appointment to nor continuance in office is a matter of right. The incumbent became an officer with a view to public benefits, and when these require his removal they are not to be sacrificed to private interests. It is the people, and they alone, who have a right to complain when a bad officer is substituted for a good one.

 

开始SOAPS分析

Subject什么样的话题),即政府官员是否应该轮换。

Occasion时社会环境如何,1829杰克逊总统执政时期他是美国第一位平民总统。

Audience受众是谁),由宣告书知受众为全体美国公民。

Purpose目的是什么),即希望美国人民可以接受官员的轮换制,可以进一步加强总统的职权。

最后Speaker作者是谁),即杰克逊总统,美国第一位民主党总统。

 

通过SOAPS方法来分析材料的主于就会迅速被提取出来,然后按顺序再对其他材料进行分析分析之后把所有的文章再进行归类和汇总。

 

如果考生没有时间分析完所有的文章,至少也要看一下文章的作者因为文章作者能给考生提供大量的信息比如社会等级是什么奴隶还是平民公众还是官员作者信仰的宗教是什么?是新教徒天主教徒还是无神论者作者是男性还是女性作者发布这篇文章的背景是什么?这些都会帮助考生在非常短的时间内推测出材料的大致内容和倾向。

 

(三)关于额外材料的补充

对于材料分析题,如果考生想取得高分还需要做的就是找出一篇额外的文章。这篇文章的存在可以使得给定的资料更加完备,可以使考生的论据更加充分或者对回答问题更有帮助。阅卷官并不需要考生给出一个明确的补充资料,谁也不会期望一个高中生真的学富五车满腹经纶,知道大量的大纲以外的史实——这也是不现实的。考生只需要给出一个模糊的资料类型就可以,甚至是不存在的都可以。

 

如果还是觉得有些无从下手,希望下面的小技巧可以有帮助:

1.如果是写出的信那么回信就可以作为补充资料。

2.如果是写给政府的建议那么政府的回复可以作为补充资料。

3.如果给出的是人口、种族的分布那么其他资料比如宗教信仰的分布、收入层次的分布也许可以作为补充资料。

4.如果材料反映的是社会不公的情况政府现有的政策可以作为补充资料。

5.如果材料作者说明的是另一个人的观点那么另一个人本人的文章可以作为补充资料。

6.如果是政府发布的政策那么公众的反应可以作为补充资料。

 

真正的考试中所引用的资料千差万别,希望上述这些方法能够帮助更多的考生找出相应补充资料的线索。

 

(四)开始写作

在对题目和材料都分析完毕之后,考生可以开始写作强烈建议考生分三个部分、五个段落进行材料分析题写作。

 

第一部分为第一段,考生要紧扣问题给出自己的论点。论点无对错之分比如刚才那道题目:Using information from the evidence (that follows) as well as your knowledge of the period, to what extent did the presidency of Andrew Jackson bring about a social, economic, and political revolution? 论点可以是以下任何一个,甚至是几个的综合。

 

• Yes, Jackson brought about the changes that can be defined as revolutionary.

• No, Jackson did not bring about revolutionary changes.

• The changes that occurred during Jackson's presidency were revolutionary, but his role has been overemphasized and these changes would have occurred anyway.

• Jackson brought about revolutionary social changes, but not economic or political ones.

 

以上这些论点都可以,只要能在后续写作中用到相关材料来支持该论点阅卷官就会给分但千万不要偏题,给出一些和题目所问不相关的论点那样的话就惨了,几乎整个材料分析题就不会得分了。

 

第二、三、四段为主体段,即要运用题目材料和自己掌握历史知识找到支持论点的论据。考生要牢记,材料运用得越多得到的分数就越高。如果考生可以运用所有资料作为论据,或者只有一篇资料没有运用到考生至少可以获得2分。分析透彻的话甚至可以获得3分。如果有2篇文章没有用到那这部分考生最多只能得到1分。如果两篇以上没有用到,部分就没有分数了。

 

为了保证尽可能多运用材料,每当考生运用到一篇文章后都应该返回材料部分并做上标记,表明这篇文章已经被运用过了。写完论文后应该及时检查,如果发现有文章还没有在论文中用到马上加到论文中去。因为考试只有40分钟写作时间迫于时间压力很多考生都会无意中丢掉一两篇文章。这个标记的方法可以保证不会遗漏材料。另外,考生一般都注重文字资料忽视图表和数据资料,切记也要从图表和数据中提取支撑论点的论据因为图表和数据资料也是计算在内的。

 

如何运用材料也是有技巧的,第一个就是切记不要直接抄取材料要用自己的语言把同一件事情说出来,同义替换来更加贴合你的论点直接抄是不给分的。改动起来其实也非常容易比如稍作改动如下:

 

1. As shown by document C, no one man has any more intrinsic right to official station than another.

2. As shown by Jackson Announces His Policy of Rotation in Office in 1829, no one man has any more intrinsic right to official station than another.

 

第二个运用文章的技巧就是。要选取能支持你论点的即能回答题目问题的。不要选取无关的内容,那样也是不给分的。

 

比如论点是Yes, Jackson brought about the changes that can be defined as revolutionary.而考生选取的部分资料的史实如下A bank of the United States is in many respects convenient for the Government and useful to the people.

 

这种运用是不给分的,因为考生的论点是杰克逊推出了很多项的改革。而所选取的文章只是说明了从很多方面来看美国的银行都可以方便公众,需要论证的论点没有关系起不到支持作用。而考生的任务是确保自己所运用的文章就是支持自己的论点的。

 

考生可以选取文章中如下的段落作为支持论点的证据:No one man has any more intrinsic right to official station than another. 杰克逊在演讲中说没有人有权固定担任政府官员的职位,直接表明了他意图改革政治的决心,可以证明前面考生的论点。

 

甚至以下材料也可以But when it was discovered that there were in place very many of your own friends who had been guilty of this unconstitutional impropriety. 该材料的作者虽然批评了杰克逊的改革,表面实质上他是把自己的亲信安插到政府中,但也完全说明了杰克逊确实进行了很多的改革,可以支持考生的论点。

 

在第二、三、四段支持完论点之后,考生开始写作第五段即结尾段。在结尾段对文章总体进行总结,并呼应中心论点使文章成为一个整体。在这部分考生需要注意的则是一定要与论点段中表达的中心思想一致。比如,你对某件事的看法是负面的那么结尾也必须是负面的表达,否则阅卷官就会认为你的观点不明进而影响到整篇论文的分数。